This one-day research workshop was a true intellectual feast. In organizations, this ethical approach holds that justice may be in the form of distributive justice, retributive justice, or even compensatory justice all in which social justice and equal dignity are core subjects. 6 February. IvyPanda. All other theories including utilitarian, justice, and rights, with some little exception of the virtue theory that seems less competent in business practices, have their inspiration of laws and regulations that contain the concept of obligatory. Your email address will not be published. If you are the copyright owner of this paper and no longer wish to have your work published on IvyPanda. Cases of ethical lapses are still on the rise, and thus developing an understanding of the issues in the context of decent business practices is becoming essential. Aristotle’s virtue ethics theory is important in addressing many ethical problems in business and organization management because virtue and moral character “provides the wisdom necessary for applying rules in particular instances” (Hinman, 2006). In the wide sense of moral soundness, good leadership associates with good ethics where integrity, transparency, and moral obligations related to competence, justice, duty, and the great goodness (Ciulla, 2004). Claims involve the right of individuals to enjoy protection against any form of harm or paternalism. Massey practiced its business in breach of the employees’ justice. Utilitarianism and personal identity. Following ethical dilemmas and ethical lapses in business practices that became eminent in the 1970s, the concept of business ethics emerged to expound business ethical principles (Arnold et al., 2010). © Copyright ‘2020’ by Dr Ana-Maria Pascal - Website designed by Luca Morelli. Ethics of virtuous behavior in organizations assume that individuals should be honest and righteous in their actions, which should not rely on consequences of bad intentions, but virtuous acts (Gardiner, 2003). In the context of on-going consultations around the proposed UN Treaty for transnational business and human rights, the debate has recently focused on hard v. soft law, or mandatory v. voluntary initiatives. IvyPanda. Behaving ethically is more than obeying the law -- it is expecting your rights to be upheld and upholding the rights of others through ethical duties. The workshop ended with a presentation by Dr Ana-Maria Pascal and Zhiwei Hu on their year-long project about CSR guidance and company reporting in China. Ciulla (2004) assumes that since people can barely foresee the repercussions of their actions, moral judgment should entail proper application of moral principles and not upon the contingency of outcomes. Rights ethics is an answer to the meta-ethical question of what normative ethics is concerned with (Meta-ethics also includes a group of questions about how ethics comes to be known, true, etc. The basis of the law is social relations which determine its content and character. February 6, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/business-ethics-utilitarianism-rights-justice-caring-and-virtue-theories/. Business Ethics and Human Rights This briefing updates the scope of the challenge to business with more recent developments. The right to express ideas or opinions with freedom as an individual. The study of ethics focuses on human relationships and what is considered morally correct in human behaviors. Attention to rights ensures that the freedom and well-being of each individual will be protected when others threaten that freedom or well-being. They examine the interplay between national and international standards, stock exchanges and sector specific guides – and their role in top 50 companies reporting on social and environmental responsibilities and human rights, in 2017. It builds the intrinsic motivation of unforced and voluntary care for those in the vulnerable groups and desperately dependent on us (Noda, 2011). Rights ethics holds that normative ethics is concerned with rights. Social rights are widely recognized in developed nations nowadays. Rights-based ethics is a concept that because one is a human being that person is entitled to certain rights. Though the view that business has human rights responsibilities has attracted a great deal of positive attention, this view continues to face many reservations and unresolved questions. This position goes down to ethical business practices where in the context of the rights ethical approach, employees should receive maximum respect, dignity, and protection from any form of physical, emotional, or psychological harm coming from their jobs. Robertson, M., & Walter, G. (2007). Morally virtuous leaders are competent as they act or undertake their jobs in the right way. Justice and fair practice include a relationship between employees and employers, and employees and employees as well, something that is undisputable in the justice theory. The Massey Energy Company and its Upper Big branch lacked considerable care of its miners at it breached rules and regulations and even violated workplace safety rules. Massey Company had not only violated the ethical business standards and the federal government legal stipulations of the MSHA, but the constant problems described entail some significant breach of justice in organizations. Privileges involve individuals’ autonomy and diplomacy towards actions against themselves. Carefulness in business practice is one of the business principles considered essential in the moral philosophy. Massey and its Upper Big Branch consistently remained insensitive to environmental precautions and mismanaged the coal slurry that contained toxic impurities. Furthermore, evolving issues of presence of adaptive preferences that sometime deem uncontrollable as people accept such preferences due to low expectations presents a significant challenge to establish the basis of utilitarianism (Robertson & Walter, 2007). In the conclusion of their investigations, the Federal Department of Justice Settlement and the MSHA unveiled a report that indicated that although enforceable, the disaster was just a simple avertable coal dust explosion. Theory of Ethics It's difficult to say exactly what ethics is, but we can say that it involves a standard of what is right and wrong based on what people ought to do. The conclusion was, all stakeholders have a critical role to play – not one group, however powerful or diligent, can tackle the human rights challenge alone. It was the duty of care for the employer of Massey to protect and care for the miners drilling oil. Justice as an ethical approach in the leadership and business practices is where individuals receive equal treatment in the society regardless of their creed, racial background, professional rank, or even their social classes. Unfortunately, your browser is too old to work on this site. Catie Shavin offered a detailed account of what works in business practice, from her 10 year experience working with practitioners globally and in key regions. 2. Management teams should be virtuous so that their actions and regulations that they develop do not contradict the real meaning of ethical leadership. The right of individuals or organizations to express opinions or share information freely in written medium. Management in the Massey Energy Company had intentionally violated mining principles including safety violations as stipulated by the MSHA, thus putting employees susceptible to harm. The rescue teams did little to contain the situation as it forced them to enter the mine in turns. Gardiner, P. (2003). For full functionality of this site it is necessary to enable JavaScript. (2019, February 6). As the need for mutual understanding between workers and companies intensifies, organizational discourse is currently revolving around ethical business principles that are paramount for organizational success in the modern day businesses. IvyPanda. Our moral belief about life changes over time. Lord Hastings set the scene with a thought-provoking talk on WHAT are we talking about, when we talk about human rights, in this era of digitisation, when most consequential decision are (soon to be) made by computers? Before the occurrence of the tragedy, the federal government claimed that the company had already received warning more than fifty times in the previous month alone and many of the Massey Energy’s coal companies had poor safety records. (2004). which is not directly addressed by rights ethics). The storyline of the explosion indicated that the rescue team appeared at the scene some hours after the explosion, meaning that the company had no specialists to counter an explosion. "Business Ethics: Utilitarianism, Rights, Justice, Caring, and Virtue theories." The right to come together and meet in order to achieve goals. Stuart Mill “viewed the maximization of some form of eudemonic happiness as the source of the good” (Robertson & Walter, 2007, p.1). Dr. Aurora Voiculescu, Reader in Business Ethics, University of Westminster. Noda, K. (2011). Business owners and managers can use an ethics theory they deem most appropriate for use in their operations. According to Robertson and Walter (2007), the utilitarian moral theory can remain assessable through “clarity, coherence, comprehensiveness, simplicity, explanatory power, justificatory power, output power, and practicality” (p.2). Although justice theory and its principles may focus entirely on the relationship between workers and the way an organization ensures equity amongst them, looking at the direct relationship between the miners and the Massey Company is integral. Journal of Value Inquiry, 33(1), 183-199. Rights are considered to be ethically correct and valid since a large population endorses them. Journal of Ethics in Mental Health, 2(1), 1-4. The foremost portion of business ethics understands the theory of rights as one of the core principles in the five-item ethical positions that deem essential in the understanding of moral business practices (Gardiner, 2003). Ethical theories depend on what is right and wrong and the end result of the action. In organizations, employees comprise the largest population and investors are normally few where the latter normally protect the interest of the company and its reputation rather than the welfare of employees. Deontological theories. Journal of Medical Ethics, 29(1), 297-302. A few different business ethics theories exist, such as the utilitarian, rights, justice, common good and virtue … In J. Antonakis, A. Cianciolo & R. Sternberg (Eds. This essay on Business Ethics: Utilitarianism, Rights, Justice, Caring, and Virtue theories was written and submitted by your fellow student. Honest action never possess hidden intentions and it remains perfectly controlled by innate emotions towards doing the right to others and justice to ourselves. According to Bentham, man should be capable of living a life of pleasure with minimal suffering and that which only seems impossible to avoid. Doing what is right is obeying your duties and the rule that guide a business. Distributive justice entails equal distribution of benefits and burdens among the involved society or organizational members. The rights theory serves based on positions of justice and rights that consider moral leadership as that which entails just treatment and respect towards individual rights The rights theory of business ethics rests upon the notion that all individuals possess the right towards life and thus they should be treated with the highest respect and dignity required. 2. Management within organizations has the responsibility of acting ethically upright in defense of the majority employees and all people should undertake their practice with moral consciousness of understanding that their actions are morally right (Gardiner, 2003). Retributive or corrective justice means that organizational members receive punishment or correction in a fair and justified manner and organizations should punish members depending on the set rules and regulations, but not on biased terms. The strong hurricane could barely allow the fellow shift miners to rescue others at the juncture of the incidence, and this aspect probably might have required rescue experts. Ethics and leadership effectiveness. Finally, on recognising the need for internal approaches (as opposed to external regulation), the GBI launched a new tool last year, the Business Practice Portal. The Massey Energy Company owned numerous mining companies across the United States. The notion of ethical business practices has led to the formation of theories including the utilitarian theory, rights theory, justice theory, caring theory, and virtues theory, which have since been integral in the understanding of business ethics. An ethics of care from an unificationist perspective. Powers in rights are “the ability within asset of rules to alter then normative situation of one self or another” (Arnold et al., 2010, p.572). Business ethics theories include the moral principles or codes a company implements to ensure that all individuals working in the company act with acceptable behavior. During the post-enlightenment period in the West, utilitarian ethics as normative ethics were to form the blueprint for the long desired social justice in the West and philosophers consider it as the background of the modern moral philosophy. Non-suffering, fair treatment, and virtuous leadership are all part of ethical leadership. In this sense, human beings have been described as having rights to property, "to life, liberty, and the pursuit happiness" ( United States Declaration of Independence, 1776), as "free and equal in rights" ( Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, 1789), and as having rights "to share in scientific advancement and … The right to be informed of what law has been broken if … IvyPanda, 6 Feb. 2019, ivypanda.com/essays/business-ethics-utilitarianism-rights-justice-caring-and-virtue-theories/. However, most critics on the utilitarian moral theory of the Bentham version of utilitarianism rest upon the notion that it is difficult to determine satisfaction of choice. Learn how your comment data is processed. Previous records in 2006 indicated similar problems at the company. This was followed by a talk by Doug Specht, on the link between human rights mapping (understood in a wide sense) and surveillance. Jose Pavon AC1403380 Business Ethics C06.V.9.1 Assignment 4 C061 3/3/15 A right is encouraged by principles of justice and constitutes the legal and institutional order regulating human behavior in society. It gives an overview of some practical tools and frameworks that organisations can use to minimise the risk of human rights abuses in all their operations, including some recent examples of good practice. It considers ethics defined by duties and rights. It is the only moral … The mining company used certain cars to ferry miners in and out of the mine entrance during the shift reshuffling. With regard to the case of Massey and its Upper Big Branch, there might not be considerable connection that directly explains this relationship. Your privacy is extremely important to us. Chapter 2 "Theories of Duties and Rights: Traditional Tools for Making Decisions in Business When the Means Justify the Ends" examines some theories guiding ethical decisions in business. Ethical leadership is part of ethical business practices and it entails instilled democracy. Utilitarianism holds that the most ethical choice is the one that will produce the greatest good for the greatest number. Lack of these essential safety precautions underscores a violation of safety requirements and the 2011 was a similar breach to safety principles as they undermined the employee’s justice. The project is a good example of multi-stakeholder collaboration, and Dr Voiculescu explained the role of government, foreign and local companies, the World Bank, domestic finance and labour in the supply chains in Uzbekistan, and the resulting intricacies in on-going efforts to reduce child labour in the country. The rights ethical approach assumes that it is the moral and professional responsibility of the management and its company to consider the safety of workers and provide them with appropriate protection against any form of physical or psychological harm. These rights are natural rights and conventional rights as created by the society in which that person lives in. Business Ethics – Theories of Business Ethics: Teleological and Deontological Theories. As such, they are bound by codes ofconduct promulgated by professional societies. Dr Wim Vandekerckhove used two views of negative freedom – Isaiah Berlin’s and Skinner’s – to explore the struggle of a campaigning platform of trade unions and civil society organisations, in the coming about of the new EU Directive. Miners died in the course of their duties not because of their individual workplace practice incompetence, lack of professionalism, or even knowledge failure, but the government concluded that the company’s blatant safety violation as the cause of the coal dust explosion. The tangled debris made it even worse for the rescue teams’ progress as it had littered the entire excavation floor. Conventionally, human beings wish to experience good moments of pleasure and contentment, but they are normally contemptuous to suffering and any form of torment. About Rights Theory. Philosophers believe that rightness or wrongness results from consequences of certain actions and this aspect has long possessed a significant contribution to the understanding of utilitarianism. Kit Barton, Principal Lecturer in Leadership, Management & Ethics, Regent’s University London. Care of the company should not be biased on the racial status, professional rank, and even creed differences. The company was faulty in failing to ensure that its business practices followed federal state regulations and ethical business standards that intended to protect the welfare of the employees. The notion of utilitarianism became a moral philosophy in the 17th century and originated from the efforts of Western politicians to develop an ethical framework that would promote political liberalism (Robertson & Walter, 2007). John Locke (1632 - 1704) Based off the principles and beliefs of John Locke, a 17 th century English philosopher, Locke’s Rights Ethics is one of the four major ethical theories that has shaped today’s society. This study analyzes these theories in the context of the case of deaths at the Massey Energy Company. Business Ethics Wayne Norman “Business ethics” is a concise, but in many ways misleading, label for an interdis- ... from the rights of workers and the ethics of lobbying, to the justifications and critiques of capitalist ... theory of the right or the theory of the good has priority; and virtue ethicists reject February 6, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/business-ethics-utilitarianism-rights-justice-caring-and-virtue-theories/. 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