Sea levels are risin… Figure 3 shows farmers’ perceptions of average temperature and rainfall changes in Ethiopia over the last 20 years from 2004/2005. Climate change in Ethiopia (Funk and others, in press): A. shows the average location of the March–June 500 mm rainfall isohyets for 1960–1989 (light brown), 1990–2009 (dark brown), and 2010–2039 (predicted, orange). The authors would like to thank the National Meteorological Agency of Ethiopia for providing the climate data. The warm to cool, semi-humid zone: covers the mild highlands between 1,500 and 2,500 meters. The 30 years average monthly precipitation, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature of the study area are indicated in Fig. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Elements and Controls of Weather and Climate. Understanding spatiotemporal climate and vegetation changes and their nexus is key for designing climate change adaptation strategies at a local scale. Rainfall showed statistically non‐significant increasing trends of 35 mm per decade at the annual timescale. Unlimited viewing of the article PDF and any associated supplements and figures. Woldeamlak Bewket is a professor of Environmental Studies at Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. The first type is composed of euritic nitosols and andosols and is found on portions of the Western and Eastern highlands. 5.2. The spatiotemporal variability of the water resources is characterized by multi-weather systems rainfall of the country. This study evaluates recent spatiotemporal variability and trends in rainfall and temperature in the central highlands of Ethiopia by using monthly rainfall and temperature records. aegypti were reported in a recent study from central Nepal . Working off-campus? and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. Recent spatiotemporal temperature and rainfall variability and trends over the Upper Blue Nile River Basin, Ethiopia. Significant effects of the climatic factors temperature, rainfall and relative humidity, physiographic region and month of collection on the abundance of adult Ae. [24] P. A. Bostan, Z. Akyürek, “Spatio-temporal analysis of precipitation and temperature distribution over Turkey”, The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. Learn more. Water Resources Potentials and Development in Ethiopia CHAPTER FIVE – THE CLIMATE OF ETHIOPIA AND THE HORN 5.1. Introduction. 4.4. Adaptation by small-scale tea farmers in South Africa 57 Box 5: UNFCCC funding for climate change adaptation and mitigation 73 The minimum temperatures increased at a higher rate than the maximum temperatures during winter, summer, autumn and also at the annual timescale. Gridded rainfall and temperature data were gathered from CenTrends Great Horn of … If you have previously obtained access with your personal account, please log in. This paper is motivated by the payout mechanism of index insurance which aims at reducing crop losses associated with weather … His area of research interest is on climate change adaptation, food security and livelihoods, hydrology, and land use and cover. Annual and June–September (Kiremt) rainfall exhibit statistically insignificant increasing trends in most of the grid points while March–May (Belg) rainfall shows significant decreasing trends. The spatial coherence of annual rainfall among contiguous rainfall grid points is also assessed for possible spatial similarity across the country. At the annual scale, maximum and minimum temperatures significantly increased in over 33% of the Basin at a rate of 0.1 and 0.15 °C per decade, respectively; however, the western part (12%) of the Basin experienced declining trends on annual and seasonal timescales. It is concluded that trends of rainfall and temperature vary considerably within the study area. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa.It is bordered by Eritrea to the north, Djibouti and Somalia to the east, Sudan and South Sudan to the west, and Kenya to the south. By closing this message, you are consenting to our use of cookies. Ethiopia is in the tropical zone laying between the Equator and the Tropic of Cancer. The capital of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, is located at an elevation of 7,726 feet, and as such its climate remains relatively cool throughout the year. Farmers’ perceptions of average temperature and rainfall changes in Ethiopia over the last 20 years from 2004/2005 (n = 1000). The F‐distribution test was used to determine the statistical significance of the trends. Rainfall Distribution in Ethiopia Abstract By utilizing GIS and R, this study addresses some topics related to rainfall distribution in Ethiopia. Gorilla slaughter, conflict, deforestation and demand for charcoal in Rwanda and eastern DRC 53 Box 4. and time (season, year). The monthly rainfall data are for 132 points of 10 × 10 km grids reconstructed from weather stations and meteorological satellite observations, which cover the period between 1983 and 2013. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG. However, such a study is lacking in many basins of Ethiopia. How to cite this article: Tamrat L M. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Rainfall Variability and Meteorological Drought: A Case Study in Bilate River Basin, Southern Rift Valley, Ethiopia. View the article PDF and any associated supplements and figures for a period of 48 hours. The monthly rainfall data are for 132 points of 10 × 10 km grids reconstructed from weather stations and meteorological satellite observations, which cover the period between 1983 and 2013. All seasons except spring season exhibited similar statistically non‐significant trends. cover; and increases in ocean temperatures and ocean acidity – due to seawater absorbing heat and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (Figure II-1). Mean annual minimum and maximum temperatures increased from 12.69 to 13.32 °C and 26.43 to 26.91 °C from 1981 to 2010, respectively. DOI: 10.19080/IJESNR.2018.14.555891. 2015). Daniel Mengistu. The monthly maximum and minimum temperatures are for the same points and girds, but cover the period 1981–2011. Climate. According to a publication by Global Trees Campaign entitled Red List of Endemic Trees and Shrubs of Ethiopia and Eritrea;six species were attributed as threatened, among those were the following: Int J Environ Sci Nat Res. No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. In the last 130 years, the world has warmed by approximately 0.85oC. Spatiotemporal Patterns and Distribution of Temperature and Rainfall in Ethiopia 5.4. 38, No. Corresponding Author. The increase in temperature in Ethiopia has been most rapid in JAS at a rate of 0.32˚C per decade. Future changes in spatiotemporal precipitation patterns are not well studied, but climate simulations under higher CO 2 consistently show divergent increases in precipitation amount and intensity that, if true, imply that some changes must occur. GIS detecting spatiotemporal climate change in Ethiopia (1946 - 2006) ... (October- January) and rainfall for the rainy season (June- September) for the years 1946 and 2006 were extracted from Climate Research Unit (CRU) Geospatial Raster Data Portal for Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to examine the spatiotemporal variability and trends of rainfall and temperature in the northeast highlands of Ethiopia. The spatial distribution of temperature in Ethiopia is primarily determined by altitude and latitude. Unlimited viewing of the article/chapter PDF and any associated supplements and figures. 2018; 14(4): 555891. The impact of climate change on precipitation in Ethiopia is more of on its distribution and timing than the total amount. 1).The long-term average shows a maximum rainfall record (up to 2000 mm) in the western part of Ethiopia and Kenya … Statistical and geostatistical techniques were applied to 1634 points on 10 × 10 km gridded data reconstructed from weather stations and meteorological satellite records. 2 pp 92-97, 2009. Most of the river courses become full and flood their surroundings during the three main rainy months (June–August). Trends in annual, seasonal and maximum 30-day extreme rainfall over Ethiopia are investigated using 0.5° latitude × 0.5° longitude gridded monthly precipitation data. This study analyses the spatial and temporal variability and trends of rainfall, mean maximum and minimum temperatures at seasonal and annual timescales over the Upper Blue Nile River Basin, Ethiopia. Even in the hottest months (March to May), average highs rarely exceed 77 degrees Fahrenheit (25 degrees Celsius). Linear regression is used to each of the 132 grid points to detect changes or trends in rainfall, maximum and minimum temperatures and the statistical significance of the trends is determined by the F-distribution test. The location of Ethiopia at close proximity to equator, a zone of maximum insolation, resulted for every part of the country to experience overhead sun twice a year. The minimum average monthly rainfall was registered in the months of November, December, January, and February, between 20 and 60 mm. 5.3. Recommended articles lists articles that we recommend and is powered by our AI driven recommendation engine. rainfall and temperature in northcentral Ethiopia using gridded monthly precipitation data obtained from Global Precipitation and Climate Centre (GPCC V7) and temperature data from Climate Research Unit (CRU TS 3.23) with 0.5 by 0.5 resolution from 1901 to 2014. Registered in England & Wales No. His area of research interest is on climate change, agriculture and soil and water conservation. The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2007) dispelled many uncertainties about climate change. The warming trends in the maximum and minimum temperatures for Basona Werana and Efratana Gidim, respectively, are statistically significant at p = .05 and p = .01 levels. Ethiopia - Ethiopia - Soils: The soils of Ethiopia can be classified into five principal types. Climatology. Warming of the climate system is now unequivocal. To achieve this objective, long-term historical monthly rainfall and temperature data were recorded and analyzed for more than 100 years (1900–2016). People also read lists articles that other readers of this article have read. On the Ethiopian Plateau (the zone 1 on the map), the weather can be cool, mild, or pleasantly warm, depending on altitude; there are a season characterized by scarce rains from November to February and a rainy season from June to September, preceded by a period, from March to May, when some showers and thunderstorms may occur in the afternoon. On the other hand, significant spatiotemporal variability in the maximum and minimum temperatures is observed across the study area. Kolla (Tropical zone) - is below 1830 metres in elevation and has an average annual temperature of about 27 degree Celsius with annual rainfall about 510 millimetres. Spatiotemporal rainfall and temperature distribution Assessing the long-term spatiotemporal rainfall distribution pattern is the most signi fi cant component in the climate These soils are formed from volcanic material and, with proper management, have medium to high potential for rain-fed agriculture.   Throughout the year, temperatures drop quickly once the sun goes down, and frosty mornings are common. Trends were evaluated from slopes of regression lines using the least squares method. Typical annual temperatures vary between 18 degrees Celsius and 21 degrees Celsius, and annual rainfall is about 1,250 millimeters, reaching 2,450 millimeters in the south-west. Ethiopia has a complex topography, diversified climate, and immense water resources. Source: Bryan et al. Ethiopia Recent Climate Trends Temperature • Mean annual temperature has increased by 1.3˚C between 1960 and 2006, an average rate of 0.28˚C per decade. Cited by lists all citing articles based on Crossref citations.Articles with the Crossref icon will open in a new tab. Spatiotemporal analysis was conducted in 33 districts in this area. To learn about climate change, you first must know what climate is. It has three different climate zones according to elevation. The spatiotemporal distribution of DF cases in Nepal in the period 2006–2012 is shown in Fig 4 [58,59,75,104]. Learn about our remote access options, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Carbon Management and Sequestration Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. Analysis of the spatial distribution and the temporal trends of rainfall is crucial for water resource management, agricultural productivity and climate change mitigation (Ayalew et al. These points were reclassified into the three districts (Woredas in Amharic) studied having different agroecologies by extraction techniques with ArcGIS 10.1 and converted into raster to generate surface data using simple krigging interpolation technique. The F‐distribution test was used to determine the statistical significance of the trends. To learn about our use of cookies and how you can manage your cookie settings, please see our Cookie Policy. The observed long-term country-area average annual rainfall, based on the Climate Hazard Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations version 2 (CHIRPS), during 1981–2016 is higher in Tanzania (971.7 mm) than in Ethiopia (801.6 mm) and Kenya (601.1 mm) (Fig. 2012).Moreover, analyzing both inter-annual and intra-annual trends in rainfall offers intuitive information on the dynamics of soil moisture in rain-fed systems (Zhao et al. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, The paper has benefited from useful comments and suggestions by two anonymous referees and the editor to whom the authors are very grateful. The data were obtained from the National Meteorological Agency of Ethiopia and cover the period between 1981 and 2010. Rainfall and temperature analysis methods can be broadly grouped into variability and trend analysis categories (Asfaw et al., 2018).Coefficient of variation (CV) and percentage of deviation from the mean (anomaly detection) are among the widely applied methods of variability analysis (Asfaw et al, 2018, Kassie et al, 2013, Hadgu et al, 2013, Agnew and Chappell, 1999). Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, Dynamics of The Tropical Atmosphere and Oceans, Meteorological Measurements and Instrumentation, Fluid Dynamics of the Mid-Latitude Atmosphere, Time Series Analysis in Meteorology and Climatology: An Introduction, The Atmosphere and Ocean: A Physical Introduction, 3rd Edition, Quarterly Journal of Royal Meteorological Society Special Collections, Meteorological Applications Special Collections, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. On the Recent spatiotemporal temperature and rainfall variability and trends over the Upper Blue Nile River Basin, Ethiopia June 2014 International Journal of Climatology 34(7) We use cookies to improve your website experience. Over the last 50 years, human activities – particularly the burning of fossil fuels – have released sufficient quantities of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases to trap additional heat in the lower atmosphere and affect the global climate. This study evaluates recent spatiotemporal variability and trends in rainfall and temperature in the central highlands of Ethiopia by using monthly rainfall and temperature records. Arragaw Alemayehu is a PhD Candidate in Environment and Natural Resources Management at Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. Drought insurance in Ethiopia 40 Box 3. Data have been analyzed using coefficient of variation, anomaly (2009). This indicates the need for local-level analysis, and context-specific planning and implementation of climate change adaptation interventions. The spring season, however, showed a statistically non‐significant declining trend in the north eastern (11%) part of the Basin. Minimum temperatures significantly increased in northern, central, southern and southeastern parts of the Basin in all seasons. Each of the last 3 decades has been successively warmer than any preceding decade since 1850(1). Daniel Mengistu, Woldeamlak Bewket, Rattan Lal, Recent spatiotemporal temperature and rainfall variability and trends over the Upper Blue Nile River Basin, Ethiopia, International Journal of Climatology, 10.1002/joc.3837, 34, 7, (2278-2292), (2013). Based on the 2007 National Population and Housing Census of Ethiopia, the projected population for 2013/14 in the study area is about 6,102,870, of which 2,998,149 (49.1%) were male and 826,246 (13.5%) lived in urban areas. For agricultural activity, seasonal reliability is more important than annual reliability ( King’uyu et al., 2000 , NMA, 2007 , Belay et al., 2014 ). Register to receive personalised research and resources by email, Local spatiotemporal variability and trends in rainfall and temperature in the central highlands of Ethiopia, Department of Geography & Environmental Studies, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, /doi/full/10.1080/04353676.2017.1289460?needAccess=true, Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography. 3. Figure 2. 3099067 Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. The National Meteorological Agency of Ethiopia and rainfall changes in Ethiopia period of hours. If you have previously obtained access with your personal account, please see our Policy... – the climate of Ethiopia and the editor to whom the authors have! Were reported in a recent study from central Nepal north eastern ( 11 )! In Nepal in the last 130 years, the world has warmed by 0.85oC... 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